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Month: May 2017

What sort of entrepreneur are you anyway?

This article was originally published on swombat.com in May 2011.

From my father’s blog about wisdom:

The trouble with values is that they are all good.

Most people will swiftly agree with most of the high values of humankind: freedom, happiness, truth, respect, justice, equality, prudence, compassion, courage, modesty, patience, moderation, harmony, industry and so on; but ask them which is the most important and prevailing. You will suddenly find in the pattern the striking differences that tell fascists apart from communists and religious fanatics from tolerant free thinkers.

Bad people have no problem with good values. Irreconcilable opposites are made from the same handful of values representing goodness. It is the weight of each that differs.

The same is true for entrepreneurial values. Everyone but the most psychopathic entrepreneur will agree that a business should treat its employees well, shouldn’t waste money, should create value, should generate returns for its shareholders, shouldn’t kill people or make them ill, and so on.

And, more specifically in the tech startup world, a great many entrepreneurs will agree that startups should hire the best people they can, should iterate, should keep an eye on relevant metrics, should have automated test suites, should have automated deployments, should have backups of valuable user data, should be running on secure, well-administered servers, and so on. For B2B startups, everyone agrees that making sales, creating a good brand and building strong customer relationships are good things.

At the very least in public, very few entrepreneur will disagree with those values. But, as with the more generic human values, there is a world of difference in how each entrepreneur orders those values. Are backups more important than automated tests? Is saving money more important than implementing good metrics measurements? Is it ok to treat your employees harshly in the name of shareholder returns?

If you’re going to work in someone else’s business, it is wise to try and determine how they have ordered their values before doing so – this is why interviewing with people who work there already can be so important for the job seeker.

And, similarly, for yourself! What sort of entrepreneur are you (or will you be when you start your own business)?

To be aware of your values and to examine their worth with your own mind is yet another subtle source of freedom. Keep Nietzsche’s hammer at hand to gently tap on each value and to judge the sound. Depending on the place where they are hung, some of those bells may give an empty ding of hypocrisy. We tend to forget that values are man-made axioms agreed as beneficial. There is nothing God-given about them. You do have a right to examine them freely – in your head – to chose your own choices. This is not theory: your own chime, your arrangement of personal values chants who you are.

Thoughts from 2017

As time has passed, I’ve been able to see first-hand how important knowing yourself is, if you’re trying to build a successful company. Reading this article again, I see that it lacks a method by which you can know yourself – Nietzche’s hammer is a bit too abstract for most people. Ultimately, to know yourself takes the same thing as to know someone else: you have to witness the person’s actions, particularly when they need to make difficult decisions.

So my advice today would be that knowing your values is important and yet at the same time the only way to really get to know yourself is to go out in the world, do things, make decisions. Then, be sure to reflect on your choices regularly, and gain the self-knowledge available to you.

Don’t be yourself

A lot of advice given to people (and, to some extent, to companies) amounts to “just be yourself”, or “just be comfortable with who you are instead of trying to change”.

This advice is well intentioned, fundamentally, and yet I think it’s not all that helpful.

How can I be something that I have only a superficial understanding of? How can I be myself when I don’t know what “myself” is?

As a person, much of my life has been spent discovering who I am. I still don’t really fully know who I am, though I certainly have a better idea than I did ten years ago. Equally certainly, I have a less good idea than I will in ten years. It’s not just that the ten years will change me (though they will), but also that I’ll have a more useful map of “me”, both the “me” that I am now and the “me” that I will be then.

Similarly for companies, I have argued before that the right thing for companies to do, rather than trying to “be teal”, is to be true to themselves. But no organisation ever gets to total self-awareness. It’s an ongoing process, discovering what the organisation stands for, in ever more depth. Organisations are made of people and, like people, they have bottomless complexity.

Onto that I’ll add that I believe that when we know ourselves, we are naturally less inclined to try be something we know ourselves not to be. So knowing yourself more leads to being yourself more.

On the other hand, striving to be yourself without knowing yourself can lead to stagnation. If I believe I’m being myself, I might be less inclined to accept that my self could use a little improvement. Why are you putting all this pressure on me? I’m just being myself, and I’m the kind of person who doesn’t like doing this challenging, uncomfortable thing you’re suggesting I might do.

So I would like to suggest a revision of the standard advice to people and to organisations. Don’t strive to “be yourself”. Strive to “know yourself”. Being yourself is a consequence of better self-knowledge.

What will kill Facebook?

This article was originally posted on swombat.com in December 2010.

This question pops up regularly on Hacker News. What will kill Facebook? Before that, it was “What will kill Google?” There was no Hacker News before that, but if there had been, it would have been “What will kill Microsoft?”

Often, the question is asked with a combination of rage and envy. The questioner doesn’t like Facebook, they want it dead, and they wouldn’t mind if they were the one who came up with something that killed it. Aren’t entrepreneurs charming?

However, the question is fundamentally flawed. It’s the wrong question. It leads nowhere. The only company that can kill Facebook is Facebook. Here’s why.

Undead Facebook

First of all, let’s assume that right this minute there is a startup which is just like Facebook 5 years ago. Let’s call it Smashbook. Let’s further assume that Smashbook is going to do to Facebook what Facebook did to MySpace. We don’t know how it might do that, and we don’t care. We just care that this is the Facebook Killer.

What then?

Take a look at the top 100 sites. What do you find at position 51? MySpace. Wait a minute, didn’t MySpace get “killed” by Facebook? They sure did, and Smashbook will have exactly the same effect on Facebook. It will drop from position 2 to position 10. Maybe. After a few years.

In other words, even if a Facebook killer was out today and ripped Facebook a new one, it would still take many years for this to be noticed by Facebook, and it would take decades before it finally did kill Facebook.

Ok, but how to kill it?

Is it even possible for Smashbook to exist? The evidence of Facebook killing MySpace would point to ‘yes’, but this is not so clear. When Facebook came on the scene, MySpace already had many issues. Due to MySpace’s design and its demographic, large groups of people were simply not interested in joining MySpace, and so MySpace already carried the baggage that would eventually cause it to get trampled by Facebook.

Facebook, on the other hand, doesn’t have any such flaws. You might say that privacy is Facebook’s flaw – Diaspora and others are certainly betting on that – but, unlike design and demographics, privacy is not something that most people care about. The odd geek will get angry and leave Facebook, but for most, privacy is of no interest.

In this, Facebook is similar to Google: it has utterly dominated its market and has such a lead over its potential competitors that no one can catch it. Facebook is as unkillable as Google.

So how unkillable is Google?

To see whether Google can be killed, let’s look at the previous “unsinkable” title-holder: Microsoft.

Microsoft is far from dead (and probably will never die), but it has made a very good attempt on its own life in the last decade. With Windows Vista, Microsoft did what it could do commit suicide on its flagship product. Six years of delays, bugs, driver support issues, usability issues, and so on – Vista had them all. And yet even that didn’t work. Microsoft’s revenues barely took a hit. Like any company of this size, it will take decades for it to kill itself, and it will have countless chances to avoid death along the way (and probably will successfully take one of them).

No company is really “killing” Microsoft. What may be killing Microsoft is its own failure to adapt and evolve with the times. What will eventually kill Microsoft’s current cash cow is the slow but inescapable disappearance of the Windows/Office monopoly, to be replaced by “the cloud”, whatever form it eventually takes.

Google, similarly, will be killed not by a competitor rising out of nowhere, but by falling into irrelevance. This will take many, many years, and Google will have many chances to jump onto whatever the next wave of relevance is.

So, back to the beginning.

What will kill Facebook?

As I said at the beginning, this question is flawed. Facebook, like Google and Microsoft before it, has risen on a giant wave, that of social networks. As an entrepreneur, thinking about “killing Facebook” is unproductive. You won’t kill Facebook. No one will.

The right question to ask, instead, is:

What will be the next giant wave?

If you can figure that out, and execute the right business to catch that wave, and beat every other business who sees it too, and end up king of the hill at the top of the next wave, then you will have beaten Facebook in the only way which is meaningfully possible. Chances are, when you get there, you won’t care much about how to kill Facebook, or any other mega-company.

Thoughts from 2017

The points of this article are still true. The latest darling to kill is Apple, and many are predicting its demise. I joined in that, with a caveat1. The caveat is partly informed from the views in this article. You can’t “kill” giants like Facebook, Apple, Microsoft, etc – you can only wait for them to fail to catch every single important wave of change. Eventually all things die, but category dominators like these companies take a ridiculously long time to die.


  1. “Like Microsoft, I think Apple will continue to make mind-boggling amounts of money for those 5, 10, 15 years. It just won’t be from my wallet, I guess.”

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